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Drainage is the removal of excessive water from the soil profile.

One can live without water for a few days. Underwater we would drown in a few minutes. The plant is very similar, it cannot live for very long in waterlogged soil. So we use drainage to lower the water table in the soil and to make sure that the roots get enough oxygen.

The type of fruit that is to be planted is taken into account, because some are more prone to ‘wet feet’ than others.

Determine what is going to be the most effective drainage system at the lowest cost.

The depth of the drainage is determined by the plant that is going to be established.

It’s important that the drainage flows downward toward the outlet that the water will flow into, whether that’s a ditch at the side of the orchard or a river

The spacing between drainage pipes depends on the soil condition.

A Mechanical excavator is the most efficient way to dig the trench. The trench is dug to the exact depth and no deeper.

A farmer has a much better chance of establishing a successful orchard in a well-drained soil. Deciduous fruit trees will always struggle in badly drained soil.